When Prophecy Fails Festinger and his collaborators, Henry Riecken and Stanley Schachter, examined conditions under which disconfirmation of beliefs leads to increased conviction in such beliefs in the book When Prophecy Fails.
A theory of social comparison processes. Both alternatives have their good points and bad points. However, behavior is usually difficult to change, especially since one cannot undue past behaviors. That there are other reasons why an experimental subject might achieve different rankings in the second survey; perhaps the subjects were indifferent between choices.
Application Dissonance theory applies to all situations involving attitude formation and change. When doomsday came and went, Martin claimed that the world had been spared because of the "force of Good and light"  that the group members had spread throughout the world.
Many people seem able to cope with considerable dissonance and not experience the tensions the theory predicts.
Human Relations, 1 2— When there is a range of opinion or ability in a group, the relative strength of the three manifestations of pressures toward uniformity will be different for those who are close to the mode of the group than those who are distant from the mode.
People invested in a given perspective shall—when confronted with disconfirming evidence—expend great effort to justify retaining the challenged perspective.
The team observed the group firsthand for months before and after the predicted apocalypse. Psychological Review, 72 5— Specifically, those close to the mode of the group will have stronger tendencies to change the positions of others, relatively weaker tendencies to narrow the range of comparison, and much weaker tendencies to change their position compared to those who are distant from the mode of the group.
An individual experiencing dissonance has three optional courses of action in order to minimize the dissonance: Conflicting opinions between two people is another example of Cognitive Dissonance Theory.
Forced compliance occurs when an individual performs an action that is inconsistent with his or her beliefs.
Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62 135— Many people seem able to cope with considerable dissonance and not experience the tensions the theory predicts. Although seemingly counter-intuitive that people would choose to believe "fear-provoking" rumors, Festinger reasoned that these rumors were actually "fear-justifying.
If you took the job you would miss your loved ones; if you turned the job down, you would pine for the beautiful streams, mountains, and valleys. They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable.
Functional beliefs "Smoking calms me down when I am stressed or upset. Two cognitions or actions consistent with each other e. In an intriguing experiment, Festinger and Carlsmith asked participants to perform a series of dull tasks such as turning pegs in a peg board for an hour.
Method Female participants were informed they would be helping out in a study funded by several manufacturers. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2 171— In his paper, Festinger again systematically set forth a series of hypotheses, corollaries, and derivations, and he cited existing experimental evidence where available.
Research methods in the behavioral sciences. The creation and establishment of psychological consistency allows the person afflicted with cognitive dissonance to lessen his or her mental stress by actions that reduce the magnitude of the dissonance, realised either by changing with or by justifying against, or by being indifferent to the existential contradiction that is inducing the mental stress.
They also found that functional distance predicted social ties as well. There are three ways to eliminate dissonance: The greatest dissonance is created when the two alternatives are equally attractive. One council member even called him a threat to the well being of the town.
In other words, people simply tend to befriend their neighbors. Highly anxious people are more likely to do so. American Psychologist, 16 11— Any factors which increase the importance of some particular group as a comparison group for some particular opinion or ability will increase the pressure toward uniformity concerning that ability or opinion within that group.
Emotional disruption and industrial productivity. Therefore, the person is in the same position as an observer who must rely upon external cues to infer his or her inner state of mind. Annual Review of Psychology, 6, — When the subject-participants were asked:.
Psychologist Leon Festinger first proposed a theory of cognitive dissonance centered on how people try to reach internal consistency. He suggested that people have an inner need to ensure that their beliefs and behaviors are consistent.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory. Biography. L eon Festinger was a social psychologist from New York City. He was born on 08 May, and became famous for his Cognitive Dissonance Theory. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree from City College of New York in Psychologist Leon Festinger is known for his theory of cognitive dissonance, which concerns our actions and attitudes.
Keep reading for a brief biography of Festinger and to learn more about cognitive dissonance.
Festinger's () cognitive dissonance theory suggests that we have an inner drive to hold all our attitudes and behavior in harmony and avoid disharmony (or dissonance). This is known as the principle of cognitive consistency.
Cognitive Dissonance (Leon Festinger) According to cognitive dissonance theory, there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance.
Leon Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance is the best-known variation of consistency or congruence theory. (It is most often treated as a social psychology theory, so it is discussed more in Chapter 15, Social Psychology.).An analysis of leon festingers theory of cognitive dissonance